All nutrient values are estimates only, derived from the concise New Zealand food composition database (9th edition, 2012). Mineral intakes are based on Australian & New Zealand Nutrient Reference Values (recommended daily intakes & adequate intakes). While we make every effort to ensure the accuracy of the nutritional information presented on Fitkitchen meals, we cannot be held accountable for the data obtained from the New Zealand food composition databases, which may be subject to change in future. Variations in nutritional content of Fitkitchen meals may also arise due to multiple factors, including but not limited to, methods of food preparation, origin and freshness of ingredients.
Percentage values of daily macronutrient intakes are based on the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, which recommends an average daily energy intake of 2,000 calories/8200 kJ. This value is an estimated average only and will vary between individuals based on age, sex, height, and energy expenditure, among other factors. Consultation with a registered health professional may therefore give a more accurate value based on an individual’s biology and current life-style factors.
Percentage values for daily protein intake have been adjusted to reflect studies supporting an increase in protein consumption as beneficial for weight-loss, sports performance and muscle gain (Consolazio et al., 1975; Mettler et al., 2010). The FDA recommends an intake of 0.8g of protein per kg of bodyweight per day for sedentary adults, however the upper limit of protein consumption remains largely undefined. Evidence suggests that for those engaging in physical activity an increased protein consumption may be necessary to optimize protein synthesis, to increase muscle mass following resistance training or maintenance and recovery for endurance athletes. (Friedman & Lemon, 1989; Witard et al., 2011). Percentage values have been calculated based on an intake of 1.8g of protein per kg of body weight per day for an individual weighing 70kg. However, an individual’s protein intake may be higher or lower depending on their body weight and training regime, including type, intensity and duration, among other factors. Consultation with a nutritional advisor and exercise professional may be required to determine an individual’s ideal daily protein consumption based on their training program, which is likely to vary with the periodization of an athlete’s training and competition phases. Individuals engaging in resistance training are likely to require a higher intake of protein to stimulate protein synthesis resulting in an increase in muscle mass (Biolo et al., 1997; Consolazio et al., 1975). However, an increase in protein consumption may also benefit endurance trained athletes by preventing the loss of lean muscle mass (Meredith et al., 1989). An increased protein consumption for individuals seeking weight loss is also supported by the attenuation of the loss of lean muscle mass during times of energy restriction (Krieger et al., 2006), thereby mediating fat loss through energy restriction while maintaining muscle mass. Meta-analysis of energy restriction diets and ratio of carbohydrates to protein and fats also suggests that high protein diets lead to greater fat loss (Wycherley et al., 2012).
Meal labels are to be used as nutritional guidelines only and are not to be solely relied on for the purpose of muscle building, fat loss, or sports performance, which may only be effective when used in conjunction with other factors specific to such purposes. Hence we only advocate meal labels as aids to achieve desired physical and nutritional goals. Furthermore, results will vary between individuals based on age, sex, weight, height, ethnicity, training status, medications and biological or metabolic factors. Therefore information depicted on this site should not replace the advice of a professional practitioner, nor be used as a therapeutic intervention or to treat any medical conditions related to food and nutrition. If in doubt, please discuss any health concerns with a doctor, health care professional or registered dietitian.
Biolo G, Tipton KD, Klein S & Wolfe RR. (1997). An abundant supply of amino acids enhances the metabolic effect of exercise on muscle protein. American Journal of Physiology – Endocrinology And Metabolism 273, E122-E129.
Consolazio CF, Johnson HL, Nelson RA, Dramise JG & Skala JH. (1975). Protein metabolism during intensive physical training in the young adult. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 28, 29-35.
Friedman JE & Lemon PW. (1989). Effect of chronic endurance exercise on retention of dietary protein. International journal of sports medicine 10, 118-123.
Krieger JW, Sitren HS, Daniels MJ & Langkamp-Henken B. (2006). Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression 1. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 260-274.
Meredith CN, Zackin MJ, Frontera WR & Evans WJ. (1989). Dietary protein requirements and body protein metabolism in endurance-trained men. Journal of Applied Physiology 66, 2850-2856.
Mettler S, Mitchell N & Tipton KD. (2010). Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 42, 326-337.
Witard OC, Jackman SR, Kies AK, Jeukendrup AE & Tipton KD. (2011). Effect of increased dietary protein on tolerance to intensified training. Medicine and science in sports and exercise 43, 598-607.
Wycherley TP, Moran LJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M & Brinkworth GD. (2012). Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 1281-1298.